Muslims read the Quran in Arabic because it is only written and spoken in this language. We also have translated versions of the Quran, but they differ from the original version. What makes a translation different? It’s not so much about word to word translations, but more of understanding what was being said originally by that person or group who sent their message down through time for people like us to hear. Previous revelations were sent in other languages.
”"And We did not send any messenger except [speaking] in the language of his people to state clearly for them, and Allah sends astray [thereby] whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise."[Noble Quran 14:4]
The Quran is in Arabic because Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, lived in Arabia. If it were not in Arabic they would say “why are the verses not more detailed?” or “is this a foreign language and somebody from another country?”
The fact that the Quran is in Arabic does not mean Arabs are superior to non-Arabs. In fact, all human beings are equal; however, God chose to reveal His final message to mankind with a people who had an exceptionally high skill for language.
The Arab of 7th Century took great pride in their linguistic skills and delighted themselves for being able to distinguish the finest nuances of vocabulary and speak it so precisely – this is no coincidence as they were chosen by God Himself! Arabic is rich in vocabulary and grammar. One sentence can mean many things, which you cannot find in any other languages; it’s syntactical. Arabic is also versatile because of its complex rules for grammatical composition.
To ensure that Quran’s meaning was preserved properly, scholars went through painstaking lengths keeping up with dialects or idioms or speaking poetry from other regions which provided clues on understanding Quran correctly as Muslim scholars were not always native speakers.
They considered such preservation a priority since it wasn’t only important but essential when reading scripture made clear by Allah himself. When translating from one language to another, the nuances of each culture and phrase can be lost. It will not just be a word-for-word translation that conveys the meaning; rather, it has to do with understanding what words mean in different contexts and cultures.
Ultimately, the Quran was primarily revealed in Arabic because it was revealed to Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon, him who lived in Arabia. The Arabic language is unique among other languages in its nuances, grammatical structure, syntax and style. Despite the Quran being revealed only in the Arab language does not mean that its message cannot be translated into other languages. However those translations are not called a Quran because they’re actual words of a translator and not God Himself.